《中华人民共和国民法通则》第九十九条第一款、《中华人民共和国婚姻法》第二十二条的解释(中英文对照版)

最高人民法院向全国人民代表大会常务委员会提出,为使人民法院正确理解和适用法律,请求对民法通则第九十九条第一款“公民享有姓名权,有权决定、使用和依照规定改变自己的姓名”和婚姻法第二十二条“子女可以随父姓,可以随母姓”的规定作法律解释,明确公民在父姓和母姓之外选取姓氏如何适用法律。

法律文本

全国人民代表大会常务委员会关于《中华人民共和国民法通则》第九十九条第一款、《中华人民共和国婚姻法》第二十二条的解释

Interpretation of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress on Paragraph 1 of Article 99 of the General Principles of the Civil Law of the People's Republic of China and Article 22 of the Marriage Law of the People's Republic of China

2014111日第十二届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十一次会议通过)

(Adopted at the 11th Session of the Standing Committee of the 12th National People's Congress on November 1, 2014)

最高人民法院向全国人民代表大会常务委员会提出,为使人民法院正确理解和适用法律,请求对民法通则第九十九条第一款“公民享有姓名权,有权决定、使用和依照规定改变自己的姓名”和婚姻法第二十二条“子女可以随父姓,可以随母姓”的规定作法律解释,明确公民在父姓和母姓之外选取姓氏如何适用法律。

The Supreme People's Court has proposed to the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress the request for making legal interpretation on Paragraph 1 of Article 99 of the General Principles of the Civil Law "Citizens shall enjoy the right of personal name and shall be entitled to determine, use or change their personal names in accordance with the provisions" and Article 22 of the Marriage Law "Children may adopt either their father's or their mother's surname" in order to make the people's courts correctly understand and apply laws and clarify how to apply laws when a citizen chooses a surname other than the surname of his/her father or mother.

全国人民代表大会常务委员会讨论了上述规定的含义,认为:公民依法享有姓名权。公民行使姓名权属于民事活动,既应当依照民法通则第九十九条第一款和婚姻法第二十二条的规定,还应当遵守民法通则第七条的规定,即应当尊重社会公德,不得损害社会公共利益。在中华传统文化中,“姓名”中的“姓”,即姓氏,体现着血缘传承、伦理秩序和文化传统,公民选取姓氏涉及公序良俗。公民原则上随父姓或者母姓符合中华传统文化和伦理观念,符合绝大多数公民的意愿和实际做法。同时,考虑到社会实际情况,公民有正当理由的也可以选取其他姓氏。基于此,对民法通则第九十九条第一款、婚姻法第二十二条解释如下:

The Standing Committee of the National People's Congress has discussed the meanings of the aforesaid provisions, and is of the view that citizens enjoy the right to a name in accordance with the law. The exercise of the right of personal name by a citizen is a civil activity, and shall not only be subject to the provisions of Paragraph 1 of Article 99 of the General Principles of the Civil Law and Article 22 of the Marriage Law, but also be subject to the provisions of Article 7 of the General Principles of the Civil Law, that is, such exercise shall have respect for social ethics and shall not harm the public interest. In Chinese traditional culture, surname, namely surname, embodies blood inheritance, ethical order and cultural tradition. Citizens choose surname involving public order and good customs. In principle, a citizen adopts his or her father's or mother's surname, which is not only in line with the traditional Chinese culture and ethics, but also in line with the wishes and actual practice of the vast majority of citizens. Meanwhile, in consideration of the actual social conditions, a citizen may choose another surname if he has justified reasons. On this basis, the interpretation on Paragraph 1 of Article 99 of the General Principles of the Civil Law and Article 22 of the Marriage Law are as follows:

公民依法享有姓名权。公民行使姓名权,还应当尊重社会公德,不得损害社会公共利益。

Citizens enjoy the right to a name in accordance with the law. In exercising the right to a name, a citizen shall also respect social ethics and shall not harm public interests.

公民原则上应当随父姓或者母姓。有下列情形之一的,可以在父姓和母姓之外选取姓氏:

In principle, a citizen shall adopt his or her father's or mother's surname. In any of the following circumstances, a citizen may choose a surname other than that of his or her father or mother:

(一)选取其他直系长辈血亲的姓氏;

1. choose the surname of his or her other linear elder relative by blood;

(二)因由法定扶养人以外的人扶养而选取扶养人姓氏;

(II) choose the surname of the fosterer where he or she is raised by a person other than the statutory fosterer; and

(三)有不违反公序良俗的其他正当理由。

(III) where there is any other justifiable reason that is not against the public order and good morals.

少数民族公民的姓氏可以从本民族的文化传统和风俗习惯。

The surnames of ethnic minority citizens can be based on the cultural traditions and customs of the ethnic group.

现予公告。

It is hereby announced.

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